How to Write a Survey Paper : A Complete Study

Research papers are collection and description of a work done by an individual. A survey paper is a description of research and a service to the scientific community, who instead of going through large unlimited data can do their work with this document. Selection of a topic regarding a survey paper depends upon the requirement of the reader. Fields that are broad but not fully explored and unavailability of quality material are one of the reasons behind the need of survey paper. In this Article, we are discussing how to write a survey paper which is useful for researchers. Moreover, we will discuss what do we need from a survey paper.

How to Write a Survey Paper:

Like other research articles, a survey paper is also collection of below items.

  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction
  3. Literature Review
  4. Theoretical Background
  5. Methodology
  6. Findings
  7. Conclusions
  8. Future Directions

We will explain each term with suggestions and recommendation by different well known researchers.


An abstract is a summary of an entire survey paper or research which clearly states the need for research and its purpose is to present basic design of your study. It also investigates the research problem, major findings and facts found as a result of your research.

In Scientific research, A complete information about the research objective is mentioned its purpose and need of scientific testing is mentioned. It helps in investigating problems and issues associated with a research object.

For example, in Finance, Information and overview about an organization are mentioned in a summarized way but as compared to scientific research paper not much information other then main structures of a company are mentioned.


In this section, we provide a full description of the research background, need of research and the current status of the research object. It gives information about the history of research and findings in the research area. It also provides full information about the previous journals and articles published about the research area.

In business studies, complete description, history, and anarchy of a company should be mentioned. A scientific research paper includes an introduction to the object, its background and current standing.

An introduction to a survey paper should be brief and background of research object should be mentioned. The words should be chosen carefully also it should be clear and concise in nature and easier for the reader.

Literature Review

It investigates books, journals, articles and any other source related to research criteria. It provides a full description, summary and critical analysis of these existing works to understand the research problem.

A literature review should provide a full description of the research also it should summarise, clarify, and evaluate the research article in order to make it easier for the user to better understand the purpose of research.

The literature review provides a complete picture and information about research object. There are different online libraries available for literature review, where a user can find articles and journals relevant to their respective field.

Scientific Journals are major sources for literature review in the research area giving complete information to investigating team about the subject. Whereas, in business studies, annual reports are the source of reviews as well as articles and case histories published in news journals.

It should be kept in mind that it clearly explains the purpose of research, words should be smaller and easier, no room for plagiarism. It should be brief and to the point.

Theoretical Background

It helps in understanding, explaining and predicting a research phenomenon, sometimes giving a challenge to existing research framework. A theoretical background provides a complete framework to researchers and it plays an important role in providing guidance for a research study.

The theoretical background helps in understanding an object. It is an important part of scientific research as well as for other fields. While sometimes it investigates an already ongoing phenomenon checking its reliability and validity and detecting its positive and negative effects on research.

In scientific research, an already existing subject can be tested to prove its accuracy and to match its previous results which help in better understanding the background of the problem related to it.

Annual reports, tenders, and Public offering notices are sources to investigate the background of a company which helps in evaluating past and present financial performances.

The theoretical background should be based on one page explaining it to the point and should include logical reasoning and avoid biases and assumptions.


It is a process which involves investigating and explaining a research work in a better way. It includes publications, interviews, surveys and other techniques to analyze information to understand a problem. it includes all past and present information necessary for research procedure.The methods of research vary from research requirement.

In scientific research, different tests are conducted to test the accuracy of data collected e.g. in accountancy and mathematical research, ratio analysis, and statistical approaches are used to test probability and results of data

Data used in research can be primary and secondary, in case of scientific research secondary data can be reused to check accuracy and to challenge the already existing result and outcome of previous research.

Business sector usually uses primary data to get accurate results whereas these results can be tested mathematically to check its accuracy.

Quantitative and Qualitative research methods are two widely adopted methods in research criteria. It should be kept in mind that all the necessary information available is fully investigated and explored.

See Also: The difference between Quantitative and Qualitative, and which one is better

Finding and Analysis

Finding and Analysis is an important part of the research, which involves collecting facts and data. It includes summarising and classifying collected data.

Facts and figures used in research should be based on reality and should ignore assumptions.

It interprets data in an easier way to determine relationships and trends among variables.

In scientific research results are based on testing. In mathematics, it is based on the value of present and future to test the outcome.

In business studies, results of ratio analysis are compared to check changes and effects of assets and liabilities.

These facts and figure should be genuine and should not be based on past assumptions.

Finding and Analysis in case of Qualitative and Quantitative data includes.

  • Comparing variables
  • Identifying Problems
  • Forecast outcomes

In case of mathematical data, it should be based on two pages including the critical analysis and proper explanation about changes in results and figures.


It is a section where a researcher discusses the outcome of his research and methods he applied for his research. It should state the findings of research and arrange it in a logical sequence.

In Science, the end results are presented before a committee for a final verdict on research. In accountancy, end results are presented to the board to determine whether the business is doing well or not. In the end, these results are published in Research journals and Annual Reports.

This Part of survey paper should be based on two to three pages based on the requirement. In different research areas like scientific and mathematical, it needs proper explanation and analysis of results. Facts, figures, and diagrams should be included in this section.


Discussion section includes interpretation and explaining the importance of a research finding and any change that occurs associated with the already existing information. Usually, scientific researchers do discussions on their findings to explain changes in an already existing object to prove authenticity and reliability of an object.

In scientific Research board of researchers discusses the findings and end results of research and the impacts associated with these research.

An annual meeting of the members is conducted to discuss the outcome of research and its impact on companies performance and need of using new measures to overcome weaknesses associated with a project of research.

This section should be based on one or two paragraph depends upon the requirement and need for explanation about the research and should use smaller sentences.


Conclusion helps a reader to understand your research and why it should matters to them in a better way after they finished reading your paper. It is not merely a summary or short description of your overall research but it points out main key players in your research. A conclusion should be based on one paragraph and should be to the point.

The scientific conclusion should be based on logical findings and reasons, key players in research should be pointed. All the important parts of research and measures to overcome weaknesses should be explained briefly.

In business studies conclusion is based on the findings of critical analysis where companies assets and liabilities are compared, its structural analysis is carefully examined, threats and weaknesses are investigated.

Proof Reading Research Paper

It is an act of searching errors and mistakes in a research survey paper before finalizing it. The mistakes can be grammatical and topological. It also includes identifying the narrative sequence of a paper i.e thoughts and ideas. Also the problems of word processing like Font size. indented paragraphs, line spacing, and margins.


References are an important part of a research paper in which source of your consultation is stated which helps in writing your paper. It is also sort of a defense against the allegation of plagiarism. It includes all the necessary books, journals, and articles which help in finalizing and writing the research paper.


In the article, some tips related to how to write a survey paper are discussed with all the major parts that must be included.